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Interval Types

Interval types are used to represent the difference between two dates, times, or timestamps. There are two classes of interval values:

Year-Month Intervals

Day-Time Intervals

These two classes are not type-compatible and cannot be assigned to each other or cast between each other.

Literals

Interval literals are specified using the following formats:

Literal Examples

SQL 2003 Standard Deviations

The following areas are where ElevateDB deviates from the SQL 2003 standard:

Year-Month Intervals

Day-Time Intervals

These two classes are not type-compatible and cannot be assigned to each other or cast between each other.

Type | Description |

INTERVAL YEAR | An interval value representing the number of years between two date values. |

INTERVAL MONTH | An interval value representing the number of months between two date values. |

INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH | An interval value representing the number of years and months (remainder) between two date values. |

INTERVAL DAY | An interval value representing the number of days between two date values. |

INTERVAL HOUR | An interval value representing the number of hours between two time values. |

INTERVAL MINUTE | An interval value representing the number of minutes between two time values. |

INTERVAL SECOND | An interval value representing the number of seconds between two time values. |

INTERVAL MSECOND | An interval value representing the number of milliseconds between two time values. |

INTERVAL DAY TO HOUR | An interval value representing the number of days and hours between two timestamp values. |

INTERVAL DAY TO MINUTE | An interval value representing the number of days, hours, and minutes between two timestamp values. |

INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND | An interval value representing the number of days, hours, minutes, and seconds between two timestamp values. |

INTERVAL DAY TO MSECOND | An interval value representing the number of days, hours, minutes, seconds, and milliseconds between two timestamp values. |

INTERVAL HOUR TO MINUTE | An interval value representing the number of hours and minutes between two time values. |

INTERVAL HOUR TO SECOND | An interval value representing the number of hours, minutes, and seconds between two time values. |

INTERVAL HOUR TO MSECOND | An interval value representing the number of hours, minutes, seconds, and milliseconds between two time values. |

INTERVAL MINUTE TO SECOND | An interval value representing the number of minutes and seconds between two time values. |

INTERVAL MINUTE TO MSECOND | An interval value representing the number of minutes, seconds, and milliseconds between two time values. |

INTERVAL SECOND TO MSECOND | An interval value representing the number of seconds and milliseconds between two time values. |

Literals

Interval literals are specified using the following formats:

Format | Description |

INTERVAL 'Y' YEAR | Y is the years. |

INTERVAL 'M' MONTH | M is the months. |

INTERVAL 'Y-M' YEAR TO MONTH | Y is the years and M is the months. |

INTERVAL 'D' DAY | D is the days. |

INTERVAL 'H' HOUR | H is the hours. |

INTERVAL 'M' MINUTE | M is the minutes. |

INTERVAL 'S' SECOND | S is the seconds. |

INTERVAL 'Z' MSECOND | Z is the milliseconds. |

INTERVAL 'D H' DAY TO HOUR | D is the days and H is the hours. |

INTERVAL 'D H:M' DAY TO MINUTE | D is the days, H is the hours, and M is the minutes. |

INTERVAL 'D H:M:S' DAY TO SECOND | D is the days, H is the hours, M is the minutes, and S is the seconds. |

INTERVAL 'D H:M:S.Z' DAY TO MSECOND | D is the days, H is the hours, M is the minutes, S is the seconds, and Z is the milliseconds. |

INTERVAL 'H:M' HOUR TO MINUTE | H is the hours and M is the minutes. |

INTERVAL 'H:M:S' HOUR TO SECOND | H is the hours, M is the minutes, and S is the seconds. |

INTERVAL 'H:M:S.Z' HOUR TO MSECOND | H is the hours, M is the minutes, S is the seconds, and Z is the milliseconds. |

INTERVAL 'M:S' MINUTE TO SECOND | M is the minutes and S is the seconds. |

INTERVAL 'M:S.Z' MINUTE TO MSECOND | M is the minutes, S is the seconds, and Z is the milliseconds. |

INTERVAL 'S.Z' SECOND TO MSECOND | S is the seconds, and Z is the milliseconds. |

Literal Examples

-- This example specifies a YEAR interval literal SELECT * FROM Orders WHERE (OrderDate + INTERVAL '1' YEAR) BETWEEN DATE '2006-01-01' AND DATE '2006-01-31' -- This example specifies a DAY interval literal SELECT * FROM Orders WHERE (ShipDate - OrderDate) > INTERVAL '2' DAY -- This example specifies an HOUR interval literal SELECT * FROM TimeClockEntries WHERE (PunchOutTime - PunchInTime) > INTERVAL '8' HOUR

SQL 2003 Standard Deviations

The following areas are where ElevateDB deviates from the SQL 2003 standard:

Deviation | Details |

INTERVAL MSECOND Type | This is an ElevateDB extension to the day-time interval data types. |

Interval Precisions | ElevateDB does not support specifying the precision of interval values and always uses 4 digits for years, 1-2 digits for months, 1-2 digits for days, 1-2 digits for hours, 1-2 digits for minutes, 1-2 digits for seconds, and 1-3 digits for milliseconds. |

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